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drag force Dw gravitation p buoyant force F(v) V gz V gz C S w 2 wˆ 2 = − r + r + 1 r (3) where V is the volume of the particle, gzˆ is the gravitation acting on in the zˆ direction, r w is the water density, and r p is the particle density. The drag force is a function of water density (r w), particle wetted area (S), drag coefficient (C

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Drag coefficient Viscous damping coefficient of a structure Two-phase flow damping coefficient Viscous damping coefficient Diameter of cylinder Flexural rigidity of cylinder Oscillation frequency Natural frequency in fluid Natural frequency in vacuum Fluid force component Fluid force component in the x direction of the jth cylinder Fluctuating ...

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cylinder is well known and much studied, but the exact de- tails of the drag curve in this range are not.’ Contributions to the drag force on a cylinder can be mea- sured in at least three ways: the viscous drag coefficient, the pressure drag coefficient, and the base suction coefficient.

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Accurately modeling the flow around a cylindrical bluff body is critical in many engineering applications in order to determine the loads and mechanical responses of a structure. For the flow around a cylinder, earlier works have primarily relied on an empirical approach to understand such flows.

cylinder, and the lift generated on the cylinder can be obtain by Kutta-Joukowski theorem. The theorem stated that the lift per unit length of the cylinder acts perpendicular to the velocity (v in ft/sec) and given by formula as below. Lift = C. L. q ∞ S (1) Drag = C. D. q ∞ S (2) Lift. rotating vortex = p ∞ V ∞ Γ (3)

The drag coefficient (commonly denoted as: cd, cx or cw) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment such as air or water. A lower drag coefficient indicates the object will have less aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag. The hydrodynamic loading was measured in both the in-line and the cross-flow directions for each cylinder. The nominal Reynolds number, based on the cylinder diameter, ranged from 1.40 ×10 4 to 4.21 ×10 4 . It is found that, as expected, the straked cylinder has a higher drag coefficient in comparison with its smooth counterpart.

We can see from the above table that for linear waves the recommended values for drag and mass coefficients are 1.0-1.4 and 2.0, respectively. The range of drag coefficients allows us to account for roughness and Reynolds number effects. These values are for rough estimates. The drag coefficient can depend upon velocity, but we assume that it is a constant here. Figure lists some typical drag coefficients for a variety of objects. Notice that the drag coefficient is a dimensionless quantity. At highway speeds, over [latex]50%[/latex] of the power of a car is used to overcome air drag.

In case, the Cl is 0.15 and the aspect ratio is 6. The induced drag coefficient is (0.0225)/ (3.14 * 6 * e). Assuming an efficient lift distrubiton for the wing design the 'span efficiency factor' is very close to one.

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